The use of field topographic maps [map]

Knowledge map is the foundation, using the graph is the key. Field map is based on the knowledge of knowledge map, it is the key content of directional cross country training.

  (a) field determination of orientation

1, the use of the compass to determine azimuth

Use the compass to determine azimuth field is the most basic orienteering. To determine when to compass, to be stable after the needle, the needle red end of the direction to the direction of magnetic north, field oriented north, East, West, right and left behind for the south.

2, the use of natural features to determine the orientation

Some features landscapebasic influenced by natural conditions such as climate, sunshine, formed a certain characteristics, can use these characteristics to roughly determine the range.

The south is usually independent trees, lush foliage, bark is smooth; the leaves are rare, sometimes rough bark, moss. After felling, the stump of the ring, the north south large interval spacing is small.

The prominent ground objects, such as mound, mound, ridge, independent rock and buildings, south of the dry, dense grass, winter snow melt faster; North humid, prone to moss, snow melts slowly. The pit, trench and hollow on the contrary.

In most parts of China, especially the North Temple Pagoda, Front Gate more toward the South; Front Gate rural housing is generally more towards the south.

3, the use of the North Star to determine the orientation

The North Star, is north of the sky a brighter stars, the night to find the North Star, found the North direction.

Figure 22 using the North Star to determine the orientation

Polaris is a star in the constellation Ursa Minor, from the North Pole about 1. And, to the naked eye, the North Star is in the north. Because of the Little Dipper in the North Star is dim, usually according to the constellation Ursa Major (that is, the Big Dipper, commonly known as the star) or Cassiopeia (i.e. our sign, also called "W" to find the star).

Ursa by seven bright stars, shaped like a spoon, spoon will end a and B two connection to the spoon mouth direction extension, about five times the two intervals, there is one more bright stars, is the North star.

Cassiopeia the five bright stars, like the shape of a change to the "W" in the word "W" notch direction for two times the width of the gap is a bright star, is the North star. Find the North Star, the North Star, former North South East West left right.

  (two) calibration map

Field use maps, the first to calibrate the map.

1, use the compass calibration

Calibration method is same as above. Using the compass calibration map with high precision, and easy errors, calibration methods, beginners is the best map.

2, rough calibration

In the bearings, as long as the map above the field map is to the north, rough calibration.

3, the use of obvious features, landscape point calibration

The object point is obvious, such as chimneys, bridges, independent tree; point clear, such as the peak, the saddle, the dividing line and the line turning point and obvious mountain tilt transformation point (obviously steep by position or by slow steepening) etc.. Make use of these obvious point to calibrate the map, the premise is to know the position of the standing point on the map. The calibration, to determine the position of standing point on the map, then rotate the map in the field to select a map on some objects or point, and a straight line on the map to the standing point and the choice of a feature point or point of a straight line, roughly coincide with field form corresponding points, and the same direction, after calibration map.

Figure 23 the use of marked features, topographic map calibration

The standing point is in the middle of the bridge, and the map is the midpoint of the bridge symbol. In the field of choice on top of the pagoda, a symbol of the corresponding map on the pagoda. The calibration map, field oriented pagoda, and turn to the map, the mid point symbols on the map (bridge can also be regarded as the bridge symbol) lines and symbols of the pagoda and field of two corresponding linear map is roughly coincident, calibration. But we must pay special attention to is the same direction, namely the map symbol should be in front of the pagoda.

This method is simple and rapid, and it is especially suitable for the calibration of map in fast running.

4, the use of direct and long object calibration

The straight and long object is a straight and long linear object, such as roads, ditches, wires, walls, etc.. When the object is in the vertical or one side of the movement, the map can be used. The calibration, find the field long straight features corresponding to the symbol on the map, rotate or map, make straight long symbol on the map and field corresponding to the long straight features roughly coincide, the map has been calibrated.

Figure 24 using the map of the direct length

Figure, athlete is moving in on the road, need to map calibration, and rotate the map, make the figure on the road signs and Field Road roughly coincide, after calibration map. But it should be noted that the field drains located in the right side of the athletes, calibration map, map drains should be located in the chart on the athletes stand on the right point, otherwise, the map range and field range will be calibrated on the contrary.

5, the use of the Arctic star calibration

Clear night, can be used to calibrate the map of the Arctic star. Standard timing, first to find the North Star, for the North Star, flat and turn the map, so that the map above the North Star, the map that has been calibrated.

  (three) to determine the standing point

After the calibration map, you should immediately determine the position of standing point in the map, this is the key field map.

1, comprehensive analysis method

When the stand point is determined by this method, the control control is firstly carried out, which is a comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of the obvious terrain near the standing point. When the control is carried out in the standing point is not clear in the case, but standing on the map where the range is clear, control, should be based on the characteristics of the obvious topographic point and the relationship between the position, through comprehensive analysis, can determine its position on the map.

As the figure, with the figure who stood on the bottom left side of the triangle on the back of the mountain, according to the relationship between the left side of the gully and the front of the mountain, to determine the position of the standing point on the map.

Fig. 25 comprehensive analysis method

2, resection method

This method is usually used in relatively flat terrain, visibility is better on the lot. When using this method to determine the standing point, the first through the control of the control, in the field of the choice of two maps from a distance of some obvious terrain points. Figure, choose the distant hilltop and independent housing, then the calibration map, cut point on the map on the top edge of the ruler compass with long swing ruler, pointing to the field corresponding to the top of the hill, along the back side of the ruler painting line; use the same method to the field of independent real aim and draw the direction of intersection of two lines; the orientation line is standing position on the chart. Orienteering, because of the time limit, generally can not be used to accurately determine the ruler aimed at the stand point, can only use the principle of direct orders to measure direction line, determine the standing point of the general location.

Figure 26 resection fattouh 27 intercept method

3, intercept method

This method is used on the line or the side of the movement. The essentials are: calibration map, online feature side far from the field, select a map and some obvious terrain, such as maps, athletes in the canal side, the canal side than the obvious distance independent real terrain, the ruler is tangential to the independent real map symbols, swing ruler, sight to the field independent housing, and one side ditch intersection symbol tangential to the real ruler of independence, is standing position on the chart. In orienteering, can also be determined by visual sighting method.

4, magnetic azimuth intersection method

When the movement in the dense vegetation, poor visibility area, because the map and field control and inconvenience, not to see the target location field, not a map from the target, can be used to determine the magnetic azimuth intersection method.

The method is: the first climb to facilitate the visibility distant tree in the distance, also some obvious points on the selected terrain two map. Figure, the distance independent tree selection and triangle, and detect the standing point to the two point of the magnetic azimuth angle of the target, under a tree near the calibration map, compass ruler are tangential to the boundary independent tree and delta symbol map locating points, respectively to the two axis swing compass and make the needle point to the north, the magnetic measurement range of the corresponding angle division, and then along the long edge of the ruler to draw a line direction, position of intersection of the two direction line is the standing point of the map. It can be roughly directly on the tree calibration map, according to the method of resection with visual direction line to determine the approximate position of the stand point of the map.

Using the above three methods to determine the standing point, the angle of the intersection line should be more than two 30. Less than 150. , otherwise the error is large.

  (four) to determine the target point

In the map and field control, as well as in the movement of the need to clear the direction of movement and movement of the line, to determine the location of the target point on the map.

1, eye estimation method

When the target point is in the obvious terrain, the visible terrain point is found out from the map, which is the position of the target point on the map.

When the target point in the vicinity of obvious topographic point, should first find the calibration map, obvious topographic point on the map, then according to the target and obvious terrain point azimuth, distance and elevation difference, the target point on the map at present.

Figure, target (independent tree) is located at 145 North highland and Zhang Nameless Highland between the saddle, and in the watershed near the slope on the road, in front of the watershed and the path, according to the distance from the target point, tilt and target near the ground, you can determine the position of the target point in estimating on the map.

Figure 29 item estimation method

2, ray method

When the target is more, there is no obvious terrain near the point, the use of light method to determine the target point of the map.

(1) calibration map.

(2) to determine the position of the standing point on the map.

(3) to the target line drawing direction, painted, the compass on the map on the side of the ruler must stand point, then to the local target, and draw the line forward direction.

(4) visual standing point to the target point distance, and according to the position according to the distance map scale line in each direction interception corresponding target map. Not easy visual distance, but also through the analysis of level terrain, or near the target point and terrain position, in the direction of online orders at a position of the target point on the chart.

Fig. 30 ray method

3, the forward intersection method

When the target point is far away and there is no obvious topographic point, the target point can be determined by the forward intersection method on the two test sites.

(1) the selected field and the map are two to three distinct terrain, such as l, 2 as the test site.

(2) the first calibration map in the L point, determine the position of the point on the map; on the side of the ruler to cut the compass to target at the point, and draw the line forward direction.

(3) in the same way painted direction line in the second point, the intersection of "two direction line 3" is the target point (independent tree) location map.

Figure 31 forward intersection method

In summary, the determination of standing point and target point is mutually conditioned. The standing point can be determined according to the known standing point; the standing point can be determined according to the known target point.

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